Mill: Logic and Knowledge


“Logic, however, is not the same thing with knowledge, though the field of logic is co-extensive with the field of knowledge. Logic is the common judge and arbiter of all particular investigations. It does not undertake to find evidence, but to determine whether it has been found. Logic neither observes, nor invents, nor discovers; but judges.” (Intro. §5) #Mill #logic #knowledge

Mill, John Stuart, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence, and the Methods of Scientific Investigation. New York: Harper & Brothers 81882.

Russell: Certain Knowledge


“Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? This question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked. When we have realized the obstacles in the way of a straightforward and confident answer, we shall be well launched on the study of philosophy–for philosophy is merely the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, not carelessly and dogmatically, as we do in ordinary life and even in the sciences, but critically, after exploring all that makes such questions puzzling, and after realizing all the vagueness and confusion that underlie our ordinary ideas.” (Chap. I) #Russell #knowledge #ideas

Russell, Bertrand, The Problems of Philosophy. London: Williams and Norgate 1912.

James: Philosophic Knowledge


“No philosophic knowledge of the general nature and constitution of tendencies, or of the relation of larger to smaller ones, can help us to predict which of all the various competing tendencies that interest us in this universe are likeliest to prevail.” (p. 187) #James #knowledge

James, William, Essays in Radical Empiricism and A Pluralistic Universe in one volume. New York: Longmans, Green and Co, 1943.

Locke: Humane Knowledge


“This, therefore, being my Purpose to enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent; I shall not at present meddle with the Physical Consideration of the Mind; or trouble my self to examine, wherein its Essence consists, or by what Motions of our Spirits, or Alterations of our Bodies, we come to have any Sensation by our Organs, or any Ideas in our Understandings; and whether those Ideas do in their Formation, any, or all of them, depend on Matter, or no.” (Book I, Chap. 1, §2) #Locke #knowledge #mind #idea #understanding

Locke, John, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1979.

Berkeley: Philosophy being nothing else but the study of Wisdom and Truth


Philosophy being nothing else but the study of Wisdom and Truth, it may with reason be expected, that those who have spent most Time and Pains in it shou’d enjoy a greater calm and serenity of Mind, a greater clearness and evidence of Knowlege, and be less disturb’d with Doubts and Difficulties than other Men.” (§1) #Berkeley #philosophy #wisdom #truth

Berkeley, George, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowlege: Part I. Wherein the Chief Causes of Error and Difficulty in the Sciences, with the Grounds of Scepticism, Atheism, and Irreligion, are Inquir’d Into. Dublin 1710.