Spinoza: The Primary and Sole Foundation of Virtue

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“The primary and sole foundation of virtue or of the proper conduct of life is to seek our own profit. But in order to determine what reason prescribes as profitable, we had no regard to the eternity of the mind. Therefore, although we were at that time ignorant that the mind is eternal, we considered as of primary importance those things which we have shown are related to strength of mind and generosity; and therefore, even if we were now ignorant of the eternity of the mind, we should consider those commands of reason as of primary importance.” (The Eternity of the Mind, Conclusion) #Spinoza #virtue #profit

Spinoza, Baruch de, The Philosophy of Spinoza. Edited by Joseph Ratner: Tudor Publishing Company 1926.

Spinoza: Existence

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“The essence of man does not involve necessary existence; that is to say, the existence as well as the non-existence of this or that man may or may not follow from the order of Nature.” (Second Part, Chap. IX, Axioms I) #Spinoza #existence

Spinoza, Baruch de, The Philosophy of Spinoza. Edited by Joseph Ratner: Tudor Publishing Company 1926.

Spinoza: Gods and Kings

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“The common people understand by God’s power His free will and right over all existing things, which are therefore commonly looked upon as contingent; for they say that God has the power of destroying everything and reducing it to nothing. They very frequently, too, compare God’s power with the power of kings.” (Second Part, Chap. IX, The Mind of God) #Spinoza #God #king

Spinoza, Baruch de, The Philosophy of Spinoza. Edited by Joseph Ratner: Tudor Publishing Company 1926.

Spinoza: Individual Things

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“No individual things are felt or perceived by us excepting bodies and modes of thought.” (Second Part, Chap. IX, Axioms V) #Spinoza #IndividualThings

Spinoza, Baruch de, The Philosophy of Spinoza. Edited by Joseph Ratner: Tudor Publishing Company 1926.

Spinoza: Men Would Never Be Superstitious

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“Men would never be superstitious, if they could govern all their circumstances by set rules, or if they were always favored by fortune: but being frequently driven into straits where rules are useless, and being often kept fluctuating pitiably between hope and fear by the uncertainty of fortune’s greedily coveted favors, they are consequently, for the most part, very prone to credulity. The human mind is readily swayed this way or that in times of doubt, especially when hope and fear are struggling for the mastery, though usually it is boastful, over-confident, and vain.” (First Part, Chap. I) #Spinoza #superstition

Spinoza, Baruch de, The Philosophy of Spinoza. Edited by Joseph Ratner: Tudor Publishing Company 1926.